Monad for developers

Monad is an Ethereum-compatible Layer-1 blockchain with 10,000 tps of throughput, 1-second block times, and single-slot finality.

Monad's implementation of the Ethereum Virtual Machine complies with the Shanghai fork; simulation of historical Ethereum transactions with the Monad execution environment produces identical outcomes. Monad also offers full Ethereum RPC compatibility so that users can interact with Monad using familiar tools like MetaMask and Etherscan.

Monad accomplishes these performance improvements through the introduction of several major innovations:

Although Monad features parallel execution and pipelining, it's important to note that blocks in Monad are linear, and transactions are linearly ordered within each block.

Transaction format

Address space

matches Ethereum 20-byte addresses using ECDSA

Transaction format

matches Ethereum complies with EIP-2718, encoded with RLP. Access lists (EIP-2930) are supported but not required.

Wallet compatibility

Monad is compatible with standard Ethereum wallets such as Metamask. The only change required is to alter the RPC URL and ChainId.

Smart contracts

  • Monad supports EVM bytecode, and is bytecode-equivalent to Ethereum. All opcodes (as of the Shanghai fork) are supported.


Sybil resistance mechanism

Proof-of-Stake (PoS)


Allowed (in-protocol)

Consensus mechanism and pipelining

MonadBFT is a leader-based algorithm for reaching agreement about transaction order and inclusion under partially synchronous conditions. Broadly characterized, it is a derivative of HotStuff with additional research improvements. MonadBFT is a pipelined 2-phase BFT algorithm with linear communication overhead in the common case. As in most BFT algorithms, communication proceeds in phases. At each phase, the leader sends a signed message to the voters, who send back signed responses. Pipelining allows the quorum certificate (QC) or timeout certificate (TC) for block k to piggyback on the proposal for block k+1. Timeouts incur quadratic messaging.

Block time

1 second


Single-slot. Once 2/3 of the stake weight has voted YES on a block proposal, it is finalized.


There is a mempool. Transactions are erasure-coded and communicated using a broadcast tree for efficiency.

Spam resistance

Users pay for inclusion in blocks ("carriage cost") and transaction execution ("execution cost").

Consensus participants

Direct consensus participants vote on block proposals and serve as leaders. To serve as a direct participant, a node must have at least MinStake staked and be in the top MaxConsensusNodes participants by stake weight. These parameters are set in code.

Transaction hashing

For efficiency, block proposals refer to transactions by hash only. If a node does not have a transaction, it will request the transaction by hash from a neighbor.

Deferred execution and carriage costs

In Monad, consensus and execution occur in a pipelined fashion. Nodes come to consensus on the official transaction order prior to executing that ordering (Deferred Execution); the outcome of execution is not a prerequisite to consensus.

In blockchains where execution is a prerequisite to consensus, the time budget for execution is a small fraction of the block time. Pipelining consensus and execution allows Monad to expend the full block time on both consensus and execution.

Block proposals consist of an ordered list of transaction hashes and a state merkle root from D blocks ago. The delay parameter D is set in code; it is expected that D = 10 initially.

The user must pay to have a transaction included in a block (the "carriage cost"). For each address, nodes maintain two balances:

  • a reserve balance, used to pay for this carriage cost

  • the execution balance, used to pay for transaction execution

Carriage cost is charged to the reserve balance when the transaction is included in a block (consensus); it is deducted from the execution balance at execution time (double charge), and repaid to the reserve balance after the delay period of D blocks passes.

An account's reserve balance is effectively a budget for "in-flight" orders; it exists to ensure that only transactions that are paid for are included in blocks.

Each account has a target reserve balance which can be altered by interacting with an enshrined smart contract, e.g. for EOAs that anticipate sending a large number of inflight orders.

State determinism

Finality occurs at consensus time; the official ordering of transactions is enshrined at this point, and the outcome is fully deterministic for any full node, who will generally execute the transactions for that new block in under 1 second. The D-block delay for state merkle roots is only for state root verification, for example for allowing a node to ensure that it didn't make a computation error.


The execution phase for each block begins after consensus is reached on that block, allowing the node to proceed with consensus on subsequent blocks.

Parallel Execution

Transactions are linearly ordered; the job of execution is to arrive at the state that results from executing that list of transactions serially. The naive approach is just to execute the transactions one after another. Can we do better? Yes we can!

Monad implements parallel execution:

  • An executor is a virtual machine for executing transactions. Monad runs many executors in parallel.

  • An executor takes a transaction and produces a result. A result is a list of inputs to and outputs of the transactions, where inputs are (ContractAddress, Slot, Value) tuples that were SLOADed in the course of execution, and outputs are (ContractAddress, Slot, Value) tuples that were SSTOREd as a result of the transaction.

  • Results are initially produced in a pending state; they are then committed in the original order of the transactions. When a result is committed, its outputs update the current state. When it is a result’s turn to be committed, Monad checks that its inputs still match the current state; if they don’t, Monad reschedules the transaction. As a result of this concurrency control, Monad’s execution is guaranteed to produce the same result as if transactions were run serially.

  • When transactions are rescheduled, many or all of the required inputs are cached, so re-execution is generally relatively inexpensive. Note that upon re-execution, a transaction may produce a different set of Inputs than the previous execution did;

MonadDb: high-performance state backend

All active state is stored in MonadDb, a storage backend for solid-state drives (SSDs) that is optimized for storing merkle trie data. Updates are batched so that the merkle root can be updated efficiently.

MonadDb implements in-memory caching and uses asio for efficient asynchronous reads and writes. Nodes should have 32 GB of RAM for optimal performance.

Comparison to Ethereum: User's Perspective


Transactions/second (smart contract calls and transfers)



Block time




2 epochs (12-18 min)

Single-slot (1s)

Bytecode standard






Last 20 bytes of keccak-256 of public key under ECDSA

Last 20 bytes of keccak-256 of public key under ECDSA

Consensus mechanism

Gasper (Casper-FFG finality gadget + LMD-GHOST fork-choice rule)

MonadBFT (pipelined HotStuff with additional research improvements)




Transaction ordering

Leader's discretion (in practice, PBS)

Leader's discretion (default behavior: priority gas auction)

Sybil-resistance mechanism



Delegation allowed

No; pseudo-delegation through LSTs


4-core CPU 16 GB RAM 1 TB SSD 25 Mbit/s bandwidth

16-core CPU 32 GB RAM 2 TB SSD 100 Mbit/s bandwidth

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